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Note: The method described below was used in the past, and may be revived in the future.  But  it is still experimental, and we do not know of any doctor or lab using it today.

Quantitative determination of 18 mineral elements in blood serum: values in Chronic-Degenerative diseases, previously diagnosticated.

Donato Perez Garcia [y Bellon], M.D. 1984


1. To elaborate a Table, In concentrating measuring units expressed in parts per million (PPM), for each chronic- degenerative disease previously diagnosticated, that will have the statistical range (upper and lower limits) for each of the 18 mineral elements quantitatively determined in blood serum samples, and which may be utilized for:

1.1. Facilitating the differential diagnosis;

1.2. Assisting in the early detection of the disease, even asymptomatic, and preventing unrepairable damage;

1.3. Estimating the activity of the disease, and;

1.4. Assisting in the evaluation of the effect of the therapeutical agent used.

2. To not replace the correct clinical criterion, and the basic knowledge of the medicine.


        Of the 100 chemical elements found in the cortex of the Earth, only 22 are essential components of live organisms (Table 1), and only 16 thereof are found in all kinds of organisms. 

TABLE 1 (Taken from the book BIOCHEMISTRY, Lehninger LA.)

Elements of Organic Matter 
Monoatomic Ions 
Trace Elements 

*Essential for certain species

        The inorganic components of the human body are mainly sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and sulphur. These constitute the major part of the skeleton minerals as well as of the most abundant buffer ions in the body fluids. Together with these there are other present in a minor concentration, reason why they are called trace elements like copper, molybdenum, cobalt, manganese, zinc, chromium, iodine and fluoride. Also in the body ashes other elements are found such as: barium, strontium, lead, nickel and mercury. No important role in metabolism has been assigned to the latter; they only represent accumulations without controlled absorption or excretion, so they are considered as polluting residuals of the body.

        Minerals are essential factors in the nutrition of the human being. They are essential for the bones, teeth, muscles, blood and nerve cells. They act as enzymic cofactors for many biochemical reactions, and some are an important part in hormone production.

        The functions in the metabolism of the human body, of the elements described up to this date by other investigators, include:

1) Sodium, potassium and chloride: these, can be found in major amounts in the body fluids. Sodium and chloride are more abundant in the extracellular fluids. potassium is found in major concentration intracellularly, and is necessary for muscle contraction (specially cardiac fiber), transmission o4 the nerve impulses, synthesis of some proteins, and as an enzymic cofactor. 2>Calcium: this is the main component of bones and teeth. It acts in the process of coagulation, regulation of the heart beat, cellular permeability, muscular contraction, transmission of the nerve impulses and enzymic activity.

3) Phosphorus: this element is closed related to calcium. It forms part of the phospholipids (Lecithin); utilization and storage of energy in the form of ATP.

4) Magnesium: this Is joined to phosphates and calcium in the skeleton. It interferes in ATP dependant reactions. It acts as a depressor of the nervous system, and also elicits hypotension. It is closely related to the B-6 vitamin.

5) Iron: necessary for the synthesis of the heme portion of the hemoglobin and myoglobin as well as nonheme proteins, and other intracellular molecules called the cytochromes which are involved in the oxidation of metabolites. About 25% of the body iron Is stored in the liver, spleen, and bone. In plasma it is joined to a protein: transferrin.

6) Copper: this is essential in the functioning of some enzymes, It strengthens the vascular wall, it is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth, and Is related to iron and vitamin A. It is bound in plasma to ceruloplasmin.

7) Manganese: this is essential for growth, reproduction, and skeletal development. It is necessary for the functioning of the nervous system, and some enzymes.

8)  Zinc necessary for growth and development; utilized by the nervous system, and favors healing process. It is essential for many enzymes, and works together with vitamin A. It is particularly necessary for the functioning of the reproductive tissue.

9) Molybdenum: essential for some enzymes.

10) Selenium: essential in the functioning of several enzymes, specially those related to glutathione. It operates together with vitamin E.

11) Chromium: forms part of the GTP which is a cyclic nucleotide with a regulation function in the eukaryotic cell, and specially with the metabolisms of glucose and insulin.

12) Aluminum: it has been found that this element favors the degenerative processes of the nervous cell,

        Today the cell is operationally appreciated as a chemical field wherein specific membranous structures absorb, assimilate, segregate, and excrete the basic chemical components to maintain homeostasis. These components are: proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. These in turn, are formed from amino acids, triglycerides, fatty acids, monosaccharides, disaccharides, mineral elements, vitamins and enzymes.

        A disease can de defined as an alteration in the homeostasis, which can have many causes, as p.c.: alteration in synthesis, deficiencies in excretion of one or several chemical components. For this reason the determination of minerals is important in case of a disease since these are essential part of nucleoproteins, metalloproteins, chromoproteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides (ATP), enzymes (Co-enzyme A), lipoproteins, etc.

        Up to this date, the determination of each of the mineral elements has been done on an isolated basis by knowing the normal concentration, and of some the toxic concentration. It is also known in which diseases a specific mineral element finds itself increased or reduced. The elements most determined 'in laboratory are: in the blood: calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, sodium and potassium; in the urine: calcium, phosphorus, lead and mercury; in the cerebrospinal fluid: sodium, potassium and mercury; and, in the feces: calcium.  From this, the importance can be seen of the formulation of a specific Table for each chronic-degenerative disease that contains the values of the 18 mineral elements determined in this study.


        Here a problem is dealt with of basic biomedical research in the laboratory of clinical analysis, with the intention to establish a Table for the following diseases:

1)Asthma; 2)Chronic Bronchitis; 3)Lung Neoplasias*; 4)Peptic Ulcer Disease; 5)Gastric Neoplasias*; 6)Colonic Neoplasias*; 7)Hepatic Failure; 8)Hepatic Neoplasias*; 9)Pancreatic Neoplasias*; 1O)Acute and. Chronic Leukemia; 11)Melanoma; 12)Diabetes Mellitus; 13)Prostatic Hypertrophy*; 14)Testicular Neoplasias*; 15)Breast Cancer; 16)Cancer of the Cervix; 17)Cancer of the Uterus; 18) Fibrocystic disease of the Breast, and; 19)Rheumatlc Arthritis.

*Benign and malignant.

In each Table the upper, and lower limits are recorded for:

calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, silicon, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium which are utilized by the cellular metabolism as anabolics, and:

aluminum, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel which are toxic products found in the organism. All of the above in relation to: 1)Disease, and; 2)Sex. (See Table*2 as an example).


        The serum sample is obtained from all patients examined in the private consultation of the office:  Consultorio Drs. Perez Garcia, Mexico city, from 1975 through 1984, which were submitted to a clinical diagnosis, and which were corroborated with the laboratory, and cabinet studies required for each case:. Two groups were established; male and female. RESOURCES:

A) Human: One nurse for obtaining the sample, and who processes the sample (see Method-2). A technician capacitated for the sample analyzing (see Method-3).

B) Physical: syringes of 10cc, needles B-D 22x32, essay tubes of 10cc, paper sheets of parchment of 9 x 9 cm, filter paper, precipitation vessels of 50 cc, copper electrodes TW14 of 8.5 cm of. length, sterile distilled water, Centrifuge of 10,000 RPM, device for Electrolysis of 32 Volts (described in Method-2), Emission Spectrometer for the analysis of the sample (see Method-3),and a Personal Computer ALTOS 580-2 with database program for statistical analysis (see Method-4).

C) Financial: The cost per sample analyzed is US $16.50.


1. Obtention of the sample: the patient was called to the office in the morning, with fasting of 10 hours. An 8cc blood sample is drawn with a sterile syringe an emptied in an essay tube. The sample then is placed in the Centrifuge at 10,000 RPM during 40 minutes to separate off, 3 cc of serum.

2. Processing of the sample: the 3 cc of serum are emptied on a membrane made of parchment paper of 9 x 9 cm, and the same was shaped like the finger of a glove.

The Electrolysis device, which is of the home made type, has a:

a) voltage regulator of 60 cycles for alternating current; b) polarized plug for 125 volts of current; c.) voltage measurer, and a milliampere meter on the frontal panel; d) voltmeter gage; e) current switch; f) a support of aluminum for a precipitation vessel of 50 cc; g) two interchangeable devices for adapting the electrodes (anode and cathode).

        The precipitation vessel is poured up to 40 cc of sterile distilled water, and placed on the aluminum support of the Electrolysis device, and then the electrodes are placed within the vessel. Between the copper electrodes, the membrane made out. of parchment paper, as described above, with the 3 cc of serum in the interior of it, is put inside the vessel procuring that no distilled water enters the membrane of parchment paper. Then the Electrolysis device is turn on, and the voltmeter is calibrated at 32 volts. The membrane of parchment paper with . the serum inside is left for a period of 2 hours in the electrolytic cube.

        At the end of the reaction, the device is turned off, the parchment membrane is taken out, and the serum of its interior emptied in an essay tube. This serum may have changed its color, turning to a dark yellow, brown, red, gray, and some other colors can be observed. The copper electrodes are taken out of the interior of the vessel, and this precipitation vessel is separated from its support. The contents - distilled water and mineral elements is stirred, and emptied to be filtered by the filter paper on which the metal residuals are collected which are the result of the electrolytic process of the blood serum. The same is left during 24 hours for drying, and then a very fine powder is obtained, also with different colorations. This powder is the matter to be analyzed in the Emission Spectrometer.

(At present I have already 3,800 samples processed)

3. Analysis of the sample: the samples are sent to a laboratory equipped with an Emission Spectrometer where they do the determination of the 18 trace elements and report the results of concentration of: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel per each sample analyzed, and printed by a computer. The actual laboratory taking care of the analysis is: MICROTRACE MINERALS, 915 King St. Suite B 43,Alexandria,VA,22314.USA.

(At present I have 271 samples analyzed, and printed reported)

4. Analysis of the concentration values, reported from the Emission spectrometer analyzer, of the 18 mineral elements obtained from the blood serum processed by Electrolysis: A computer program specially designed for this study carries out the following mathematical, and statistical functions: 1)to group the samples by Diagnosis, and to separate them by sex; •2)to establish series of values for each element determined; 3) in each series the arithmetic average Is calculated, as well as the standard deviation, the standard error, and the percentile values with the percentages accumulated; 4) the limits of concentration accepted are established for each element by applying the following formula: the arithmetic average plus or less 1.96 standard deviations; 5) a calculation is made with the variance' analysis (F), and the Real Significant Minimum Difference according to Tukey (DMSR) to establish if there is a significant / difference between the various chronic-degenerative diseases studied, and the values found of the mineral elements, and; between' the different sex, and these same values, and; 6) when this Tables for each chronic-degenerative disease are fully matured, will be saved in the program memory of the computer.

        Whenever this blood serum trace element analysis is performed to a patient the values obtained can be confronted, and classified thus facilitating the differential diagnosis.


        The study produces a minimum of inconveniences for the patient, and the information obtained therefrom can be highly valuable.




        To obtain a Table for each disease that contains the values of 18 mineral elements which. may be utilized as an auxiliary guide in the differential diagnosis of chronic-degenerative diseases, to help in the prevention of a disease when the same still asymptomatic, and as a guide to evaluate the effectiveness of a medical treatment.



"DISEASE' (e.g. Chronic Bronchitis)


99 - 120
1.79 - 1.88
0.030 - 0.050
1.28 - 1.39
44.8 - 47.9
0.002 - 0.038
0.890 - 2.79
0.001 - 0.450
3.18 - 3.79
4.89 - 5.28
0.330 - 0.670
18.7 - 23.8
70 - 98
1.68 - 1.78 
0.019 - 0.29
1.40 - 1.50 
45.9 - 48.9
0.029 - .059
1.45 - 2.80
 0.010 - 0.083
3.80 - 4.10
4.98 - 5.32
0.245 - 0.380
 23.9 - 25.7
0.078 - 1.23
0.302 - 0.489 
0.010 - 0.028
1.34 - 1.57
 0.009 - 0.010
0.068 - 0.098
0.039 - 0.123
0.009 - 0.024
0.890 - 1.04 
 0.010 - 0.029
1)Feed the computer "DATA BASE MINERAL ELEMENT PROGRAM' with your values, and;
2)Compare, and classify using existing DATA.

*This Table is recorded in the program memory or you can have a printed report.



        The establishment of the values of calcium, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, silicon, sodium, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel for each chronic-degenerative disease has great importance within the medical biochemistry field, since one or several chemical alterations are the cause or causes originating the pathological processes as well as the alteration of one or various mineral elements which can give raise to these chemical changes., However, . it is necessary to extend the group of mineral elements determined, and also diseases not included in this study. 


1.Aleksandrowicz J; Dobrowolski JW; Balechala P; Lisiewicz J: Monitoring trace elements in cells from the blood of patients with Acute Myeloblastic, Chronic Lymphocytic and Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia. Hasmatologica (Pavia) 1982 Jun;67(3):437- 41.

2.Bodgen JD; Zadzielski E; Weiner B; Oleske JM; Aviv Ai Release of some trace metals from ds!posable Coils during hemodialysis. AM.J.Cl in.Nutr. 1982 Sep;36(3):403-9. 3.Canedo DL; Garcia-Romero H; Mendez RI: Principios de Investigacion Medica. D.I.F.Primera Edicion.Mexico,197?.

4.Capel ID; Pinnock MH; Williams DC; Hanham 1W: The serum levels of some trace and bulk elements In cancer patients. Oncology 1982;39(1):38-41.

5.Cesareo R; Viezzoli G: Trace element analysis in biological' samples using XRF Spectrometry with secondary radiation. Phys Med Biol 1983 Nov;28(11):1209-18.

6.Cumming FJ; Fardy JJ; Brigs MH: Trace elements in human milk. Obst Gynecol 1983 OCt;62(4):506-8.

7.Danford DE; SMith JC Jr; Huber AM: Pica and mineral status in the mentally retarded. AM J Clin Nutr 1982 May;35(5):958-67.

8.Ette SI; Ofodile FA; Oluwasanmi JO: Vitamins and trace elements profiles in chronic leg ulcers in nigerians. Trop Geogr Med 1982 Mar;34(1) :73-5.

9.Golub MS; Gershwin ME; Hurley LS; Baly DL; Hendrickx AG: Studies of marginal zinc deprivation In Rhesus monkeys: Influence on pregnant dams. AM J Clin Nutr 1984 Feb;39(2):265-80.

10.John W: Relationship between trace element concentrations in human blood and atmospheric aerosol. Sci Total Environ 1983 Mar;27(1) :21-32.

11.Juswigg T; Batres R; Solomons NW; Pineda 0; Milne DB: The effect of temporary venous occlusion on trace mineral concentrations in plasma.AM J Clin Nutr 1982 Aug;36(2):354-8.

12.Laker M: On determining trace element levels in man: The uses of blood and hair. Lancet 1982 Jul 31;2(8292):260-2.

13.Lee HA; Talbot 5; Patil R; Jackson JM; Holland D: Metabolic studies with "Nutrauxil", an enteral feed preparation. Curr Med Res Opin 1983;8(8):536-42.

14.Lecomte R; Landsberger 5; Monaro 5: Evaluation of trace element sensitivities in Pixe analysis of low-temperature-ashed serum samples.Int J AppI Radiat Isot 1982 Feb;33(2):121-5. 15.Lecomte R; Paradis P; Monaro S; Barrette M; Lamoureux G; Menard HA: Elemental contamination in vacutainer tubes used for blood collection.Int J Nucl Med Biol 1983;10(1):35-6. 16.Lehninger LA: Bioquimica. Ediciones Omega.Septima Re impreslon .Barcelona 1977.p-17.

17.Lin SM: Determination of trace elements in human whole blood by 'Instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radioisotopes 1983 Apr;32(4):155-62.

18.Montgomery R; Dryer LR; Conway hIT; Spector AA: Biochemistry: A case oriented approach. C.V.Mosby Company. Second Edition. Saint LouIs 1977.

19.Neve J; Van Geffel R; Hanocq M; Molle L: Plasma and erythrocyte zinc, copper, and selenium in Cystic Fibrosis. Acta Paediatr Scand 1983 May;72(3) :437-40.

20.Ocsey L; Papp L: Study of trace elements In patients on hemodialysis. Int Urol Nephrol 1983;15(3):289-95.

21.Penny WJ; Mayberry JF; Aggett PJ Gilbert JO; Newcombe RG; Rhodes J: Relationship between trace elements, sugar consumption, and taste in Crohn's disease. Gut 1983 Apr;24(4):288-92.

22.Rieder HP; Schoettli G; Seiler H: Trace elements in' whole blood of Multiple Sclerosis. Eur Neurol 1983;22(2):85-92.

23.Robson JR: Vitamins and trace elements in cancer patients. J Parenter Sci Technol 1983 May-Jun;37(3):87-8.

24.Scheuhammer AM: Cherlan MG: The Influence of manganese on the distribution of essential trace elements. II. The tissue distribution of manganese, magnesium zinc, iron and copper in rats after chronic manganese exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health 1983 Aug-Sep;12(2-3) :361-70.

25.Scott GM; Ward RJ; Wright DJ; Robinson JA; OnwubaliliJK; Gauci CL: Effects of cloned interferon alpha 2 in normal volunteers: Febrile reactions and changes In circulating corticoesteroids and trace metals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1?83 Apr;23(4):589-92.

26.Sharda B; Bhandari B; goyal SC; Bhandari LM: Study of Cu, Zn, Mg, CD in grade III - IV malnutrition (PEM). J Assoc Physicians India 1982 Aug;30(8):501-3.

27.Simon P; Ang KS; Meyrier A; Allain P; Mauras Y: Desferrioxamine, ocular toxicity, and trace metals (Letter). Lancet 1983 Aug 27;2(8348):512-3.

28.Smith P; Stubley D; Blackmore DJ: Measurement of superoxide dismutase, diamine oxidase and ceruloplasmin oxidase in the blood of thoroughbreds. Res Vet Sci 1983 Sep;35(2):160-4. 29.Thomson NM; Stevens BJ; Humphery TJ; Atkins RC: Comparison of trace elements in peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis and uremia. Kidney Int 1983 Jan;23(1):9-14.

30.Tocco RJ; Kahn LL; Kluger MJ Vander AJ: Relationship of trace metals to fever during infection: Are prostaglandins involved. AM J Physiol 1983 Mar;244(3):R368-73.

31.Uhari M; Pakarinem A; Hietala J; Nurmi T; Kouvalainen K: Serum Iron, copper, zinc, ferritin, and ceruloplasmin after Intense heat exposure. Eur J Applied Physlol 1983;51(3)331-5..

32.Wallach J: Interpretation of diagnostic tests-A handbook synopsis of laboratory medicine-.Little,Brown and Co.Third Edition. Boston,1978. .

33.Zhu W; LI WY; Kuang AK; Tan MG; Qin JF; Sheng Kl; Chen ZX; Li MQ: A preliminary study on serum trace elements in 'Yin- Deficiency' and 'Yang-Deficiency' 'patients. Application of .the Pixe analysis in medical science. J Tradit Chin Med 1983 Jun;3(2):145-50. 



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